Revealed: the science of grafting apple trees

Most people think apple farmers take the seeds of an apple, plant them, and grow trees that yield the same exact type of apples the seeds came from.

This is not how it works.

Instead, the tree must be “grafted”. Grafting ensures that the desired characteristics are maintained in subsequent fruit trees.

Why do you have to graft apple trees? Grafting and budding are horticultural techniques used to join parts from two or more plants so that they appear to grow as a single plant. In grafting, the upper part (scion) of one plant grows on the root system (rootstock) of another plant. In the budding process, a bud is taken from one plant and grown in another.

This video demonstrates how to graft an apple tree:

Should we just ban all organophosphates (insecticides and pesticides)?

I just read this post – it sums it up nicely:

Evidence that an entire class of pesticides threatens the health of children and pregnant women is now so arresting that the substances should be banned, an expert panel of toxicologists has said.

“Instead of banning dangerous pesticides, the EPA is actually loosening the rules on who can use them.” This is not my quote. This is the subhead of this article found on the Washington Post website.

Further down the article, I found this quote – once again asking for a ban on pesticides:

Instead of relaxing restrictions on pesticides, the EPA ought to ban them altogether.

A growing number of “authorities” are asking for pesticide bans, yet its use continues to grow each year.

Organophosphate is a chemical compound that is esters of phosphoric acid. And when Organophosphates enter our body (via ingestion, inhalation, or contact with skin), they inhibit cholinesterase… this is an enzyme in the human nervous system that breaks down acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that carries signals between nerves and muscles.

In simple speak, Organophosphate is toxic to our nervous system and wrecks havoc on the way we function.

I remain at a loss for words on this. How is it that nasty poisons continue to be used on food crops? It blows me away that people are sicker than ever. Yet, most people refuse to get angry that Big Food (like Monsanto) convinces our farmers to spray the equivalent of Agent Orange on the food we ultimately eat.

We are told these poisonous Organophosphates have to be used to keep the cost of food down. But it is a lot cheaper to pay even double the price for organically grown food than it is to pay over $600.00-a-month-a-person for health care.

Here is a current list of already banned (or severely restricted) organophosphates:

1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLOROCYCLOHEXANE (MIXTURE OF ISOMERS)
1,3-HEXANEDIOL, 2-ETHYL-
1,4-BENZOQUINONE
2,3,4,5-BIS (2-BUTENYLENE) TETRAHYDROFURFURAL
2,4,5-T
2,4,5-TP ACID (SILVEX)
2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOL
2,4-D, ISOOCTYL ESTER
4,6-DINITRO-O-CRESOL
ALDRIN
ARSENIC OXIDE (3)
ASBESTOS (FRIABLE)
AZODRIN
BINAPACRYL
BROMOXYNIL BUTYRATE
CADMIUM COMPOUNDS
CALCIUM ARSENATE
CAMPHECHLOR
CAPTAFOL
CARBOFURAN
CARBON TETRACHLORIDE
CHLORDANE
CHLORDECONE (KEPONE)
CHLORDIMEFORM
CHLOROBENZILATE
CHLOROMETHOXYPROPYLMERCURIC ACETATE [CPMA]
COPPER ARSENATE
DAMINOZIDE
DDD
DDT
DI(PHENYLMERCURY)DODECENYLSUCCINATE [PMDS]
1,2-DIBROMO-3-CHLOROPROPANE (DBCP)
1,2-DIBROMOETHANE
1,2-DICHLOROETHANE
DIELDRIN
DINITROBUTYL PHENOL
ENDRIN
EPN
ETHYLENE OXIDE
FLUOROACETAMIDE
GAMMA-LINDANE
HEPTACHLOR
HEXACHLOROBENZENE
LEAD ARSENATE
LEPTOPHOS
MERCURY
METHAMIDOPHOS
METHYL PARATHION
MEVINPHOS
MIREX
NITROFEN
OCTAMETHYLDIPHOSPHORAMIDE
PARATHION
PENTACHLOROPHENOL
PHENYLMERCURIC OLEATE [PMO]
PHOSPHAMIDON
PYRIMINIL
SAFROLE
SODIUM ARSENATE
SODIUM ARSENITE
TERPENE POLYCHLORINATES
THALLIUM(I) SULFATE
TRIBUTYLTIN COMPOUNDS
VINYL CHLORIDE

How to make chocolate at home (yep, it is hard)

I am not going to sugarcoat it – making chocolate is hard. (It reminds me how hard it is to harvest cashew nuts).

Watch this video demonstration on how to make chocolate at home: